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Yukari MAKINO, Ph.D. in Literature

Professor, Faculty of Informatics, Kansai University, Japan


Yukari Makino is a Professor at the Faculty of Informatics in the Kansai University in Japan. She teaches communication competence and media. She earned her Bachelor’s degree in Education from the Shizuoka University (Japan) in 1991; her Master’s degree in Communication from the Wheaton College Graduate School (USA) in 1996; and her PhD in Literature from the Kansai University Graduate School (Japan) in 2006. She worked as a Systems Engineer between 1991 and 1994.

(The photographs show the precious friendship from Wheaton College. She was one of the student tutors at the Writing Center. She is now a home school teacher.)




Message Construction Cross (MCC), Knowledge Construction

十字モデル01 十字モデル02 十字モデル03 十字モデル04 十字モデル05

Makino's Cross models visualize a grammatical structure of meaning making. Students can use them simply as a framework tool in speechmaking or academic writing as well as in storytelling or video making. The models support learners’ verbal-and-visual thinking and facilitate their collaborative learning for knowledge construction.


MCC Model Englsih


The Message Construction Cross (MCC) model describes the grammar of meaning making in the bifocal perspectives of the two crosses.

The five components show the whole image of the MCC model holistically, whereas the seven elements tell of the individual links precisely. The holistic view represents the fundamental principles of message construction in the shape of a cross. The horizontal axis represents the principle that Meaning is created and shared through interactions between Logic and Dialogue. The vertical axis represents the principle that the Value of Meaning is evaluated in the Context.

On the other hand, the precise view describes the individual elements. The right wing (Logic) consists of thesis, general, and specific. The left wing (Dialogue) consists of antithesis, synthesis, and thesis. Logic refers to traditional Aristotelian logic (demonstrative reasoning), whereas Dialogue refers to Hegelian dialectics (dialectical reasoning). The central pillar consists of issue, thesis, and opinion. In real-world situations such as problem solving and decision making, the thesis as proposition comes from questioning the issue, and becomes the basis of opinion.

Dialogue Design System (DDS), Knowledge Construction

The Dialogue Design System (DDS) was developed in a mass lecture class at a Japanese university. It aims to develop students' identities in a learning community and to help them grow as responsible participants who will make meaningful contributions to collaborative knowledge construction.

One of the features of this system is that the DDS provides all the students with equal opportunity to participate and ensures the quality of learning outcomes through a guided dialogue. A guided dialogue is one based on a theoretical framework called the Message Construction Cross (MCC) model.

The DDS procedures include the following six steps in order to construct a cross of MCC model within a cycle.

(1) The teacher presents a thesis that represents the content of a lecture.
(2) The participants (mostly first-year students) judge whether the thesis is true or false. They use an "idea card" to describe their reasoning and objective evidence.
(3) The team of staff members (third-year students) grade these idea cards, select the excellent ones, and organize and integrate them according to the MCC grammar.
(4) The staff team prepares for their feedback presentation. The other staff members and the teacher critique and give advice.
(5) The staff team gives the feedback presentation in front of the participating students in the next class session.
(6) The teacher summarizes the outcome of the dialogue, and connects it to the context of the course.



The aim and procedures of DDS operational system



How to prepare for feedback



How to grade the idea cards



How to organize ideas with MCC model




Keynote Speech



Video Letter

Dear Vicky

Yukari Makino (2009)